Selections from the SBCC Summit – The Drum Beat 708
March 23 2016
|The International Social and Behavior Change Communication (SBCC) Summit 2016 (February 8-10, Addis, Ethiopia) brought together over 700 practitioners representing 50 countries to advance SBCC as a domain of scholarship and practice and link SBCC to positive health outcomes and impact. It was hosted by the Health Communication Capacity Collaborative (HC3), the Ethiopian Federal Ministry of Health, and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), with sponsors including The Communication Initiative. The Summit offered: talks from SBCC field practitioners; a market fair of tools, methodologies, programmes, and research; skills-building workshops; and plenary sessions to consider the way forward in elevating SBCC research and practice.
Click here to read a description of and reflection on the Summit, written by Jostas Mwebembezi, Executive Director, Rwenzori Center for Research and Advocacy (RCRA).
Below please find a sampling of the many abstracts and presentations that were offered at the Summit; click here for more. Also, please visit this theme site dedicated to exchanging knowledge proposed, presented, and shared by participants.
|SBCC THEORETICAL AND RESEARCH FOUNDATIONS
- 1. The Good, the Bad and the Ugly: Reflections of 20 Years of Proving What We Do Matters
by Lebogang Ramafoko
This keynote speech explores the meaning of SBCC and challenges associated with evaluating the impact of work in this field. Ramafoko begins by citing the 1999 paper “Communication for Social Change: A Position Paper and Conference Report” that outlines the following SBCC principles characterised by a move: “away from people as the objects for change…and on to people and communities as the agents of their own change; away from designing, testing, and delivering messages…and on to supporting dialogue and debate on the key issues of concern; away from the conveying of information from technical experts…and on to sensitively placing that information into the dialogue and debate; away from a focus on individual behaviours…and on to social norms, policies, culture, and a supportive environment; and away from persuading people to do something…and on to negotiating the best way forward in a partnership process. Not only have we long shared what SBCC con! sists in, we have long had evidence that SBCC works.” Yet how can we meet the constant need to prove that it works if we continue to use the randomised controlled trial (RCT) as the golden standard for evaluations?
- 2. Contributions of Asian Perspectives to a Global Theory of Health Communication
by Nandita Kapadia-Kundu
This presentation contributed to the “Mainstreaming Global Theories” panel by describing communication theories from Asian scholarship, which share a basic belief in the interconnectedness of social relations across space and time. On a practical level: “Asian theories provide frameworks that can enable persuasive routes other than cognition. For example, media campaigns can promote ‘shared compassion’ in health providers, family members and the community at large. Community level interventions can be designed to evoke emotional wellbeing. Techniques of collective influence can be utilized to promote health seeking and other health behaviours.”
- 3. Contributions of Western Perspectives to a Global Theory of Health Communication
by Douglas Storey
The presentation highlights the predictive power of certain Western theoretical constructs that have been widely validated in diverse cultural and social settings, notably diffusion, rational decision-making, social learning, perceived risk and efficacy and normative influence. These constructs are used to understand how communication can overcome barriers to normative, social, and behavioural change and how certain variables – such as perceived risk of disease and self-efficacy to protect oneself – precede changes in behaviour in predicted directions. Storey notes that Western theories deploy a relatively narrow range of social psychological constructs and emphasise mass communication. They devote less attention to complex social systems, cultural dynamics, emotion and power than to individual behaviour change and tend to focus on instrumental and control functions of communication.
- 4. Contributions of African Perspectives to a Global Theory of Health Communication
by Khadidiatou Ndiaye, PhD
The presentation outlines the following contributions of African theories: These theories go beyond individual focus; they incorporate overlooked forms of communication (oral media, indirect communication); and they highlight the importance of ecological perspectives (layers of influence impacting behaviour).
- 5. Scratch to Sketch: A Roadmap to Develop Effective Messages
by Yasmin Khan
This presentation was the core of a skills building workshop that combined both the science behind designing research-driven and result-oriented messages and the art of evoking an emotional response and encouraging and empowering the message’s intended audience. Khan devotes special attention to pretesting, which she describes as a way to avoid costly error by gathering audience reaction on the message/materials prior to finalisation. Khan interweaves the concept of creativity throughout her discussion. Presenting several examples of songs, posters, billboards, and other types of message dissemination, she outlines 7 Cs for effective communication.
|ENGAGEMENT FOR HEALTHY CHILDREN AND YOUTH
- 6. Underage and Underserved: Reaching Young Women Who Sell Sex in Zimbabwe: Abstract
by Joanna Busza
“Formative research suggested adolescents and young women who sell sex do not have the skills or experience to negotiate safe relationships or manage difficult clients, particularly those who are significantly older. Yet young women are also not comfortable mixing with their older peers, and thus are reluctant to attend existing participatory meetings or clinical services. To try to engage this group, we have designed an interactive Activity Pack consisting of six modules including 21 participatory activities and four ‘top-tip’ factsheets. The pack draws together psychosocial support and behaviour change communication approaches used in programmes targeting adolescents and those for adult sex workers, adapting them to the specific needs of those who fall into both categories…”
- 7. Raho Swachch Jiyo Mast Campaign
Raho Swachh Jiyo Mast reached out to 500 children in slum communities in Kolkata, West Bengal, India, translating complex and abstract concepts into developmentally appropriate and child-friendly activities. This behaviour change model combined multiple elements: a) Muppets (Elmo, and Global WASH! Ambassador Raya) as positive role models; b) engaging content and activities around concepts of sanitation, germs, hand washing, need to wear slippers to toilets, and the maintainence of clean toilets; c) strong partnerships with community-based organisations; and d) non-monetary incentives to children to be the change agents. The evaluation showed that children who had participated in the programme were 75% more likely to use a ventilated improved latrine at home and school, were twice as likely to wear shoes than before participating in the programme, and showed 16% greater improvement in using soap.
- 8. Development of the AMENI Model for Improving Maternal and Newborn Child Health – Outcomes among Apostolic Religious Groups in Zimbabwe: Abstract
by Mandi Chikombero
“The Apostolic Maternal and Newborn Interventions (AMENI) package of interventions addresses poor maternal and newborn health outcomes among Apostolic religious groups in Zimbabwe by addressing religious, socio-cultural and contextual (legal/policy) factors that drive these outcomes. It is an evidence-based intervention that focuses on nurturing Apostolic community transformation (ACT) in order to tackle religious doctrine, beliefs, practices and social/gender norms that promote poor healthcare seeking behaviors for women and children; poor uptake of modern maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH) services; rejection of modern sexual and reproductive health services including family planning; child/early marriages; limited educational opportunities for Apostolic children; gender inequalities and social inequity.”
- 9. Pneumonia Communication Kits
by Melinda Stanley
Kits are available through the Diarrhea & Pneumonia Working Group, co-chaired by the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and Clinton Health Access Initiative (CHAI). The kits are described here as bringing “highly visual” information to caregivers so that they can recognise the signs of pneumonia and feel compelled to seek prompt care. They also are intended for frontline health workers to offer them the know how to assess a child for fast breathing and chest in-drawing and know what steps to take.
- 10. mNutrition: Behaviour Change in 160 Characters or Less?
by Kyla Stockdale
A chart illustrates the movement of knowledge to end users through the mNutrition approach that is based upon human-centred design, which uses information on: “my barriers…, I am motivated…, I trust…, I am traditional sometimes…, and we eat together…” as starting points for message development. User profiles are gathered from influencers and women of reproductive age, with message samples attuned to each.
|COMMUNITY-CENTRED HYGIENE RESEARCH
- 11. Community Monitoring for Improved Programming and Sustainable Results: Abstract
by Elbrich Spijksma
“Simavi and its partners used community-based monitoring (CBM) approach to enhance a sustainable change in hygiene and sanitation behavior under our WASH Alliance program in respectively 1 and 5 villages in Hakibale and Kicwamba sub-county in Kabarole District in Uganda and in 5 villages in Tala Upazila in Bangladesh. Under this approach the capacity of Village Health Teams (VHT’s) in Uganda and Community Volunteers in Bangladesh was strengthened to conduct regular household monitoring visits and track progress in the field of hygiene and sanitation behavior (handwashing and latrine construction and use). The approach complemented other community based WASH interventions (i.e. WASH budget tracking, CLTS, Sanitation Marketing, Hygiene Promotion, formation and strengthening of WASH community structures).”
- 12. Bhanchhin Aama: The Role of Formative Research in Informing the Nepal Bhanchhin Aama ‘Mother Knows Best’ Nutrition Campaign: Abstract
by Carol Underwood, Shreejana KC, Caroline Jacoby, Lindsey Leslie, and Anna Leddy
“The USAID-funded Nepal ‘Suaahara’ (Good nutrition) (2011-2016) program aims to improve the nutritional status of women and children in Nepal. Focusing on the 1,000 days from conception though the first two years of life, the program relies on a multi-sectorial approach by addressing child sanitation, hygiene, access to food, child-feeding practices and gender and social equity. One of the key communication interventions is the ‘Bhanchhin Aama’ (BA) or ‘mother knows best’ communication platform, which includes a popular radio drama, hoarding boards (billboards) that promote key messages and are community specific, and other support materials. The objective of this study was to explore associations between BA campaign (radio drama and hoarding boards) recall and improved hygiene- and nutrition-related knowledge, attitudes and actions, and whether targeted disadvantaged group (DAG) members and their households demonstrated equal or better outcomes than non-DAGs.”!
|GENDERED FP AND HIV CONVERSATIONS
- 13. Gender, Power and Communicative Action: Qualitative Findings from Selected Nepali Communities: Abstract
by Carol Underwood, Zoé Hendrickson, Jeevan Raj Lohani, Lauren Dayton, and Ron Hess
HC3-Nepal (2013-2017) “aims to build national capacity for, and contribute to, the design, implementation and evaluation of strategic family planning [FP] SBCC campaigns with the goal of improving health outcomes in Nepal…..Sixty in-depth interviews (IDIs) were conducted….With few exceptions, men and women in this study highlighted the role of mutual trust, understanding and empathy in their marriages, thus reflecting an orientation towards communicative action. The findings also revealed that decision-making at the household level can be a complicated, complex and non-linear process.”
- 14. Harnessing the Power of Relationships: Applying Systems Approaches to Improve Family Planning Use: Abstract
by Susan Igras and Rebecka Lundgren
“Many family planning (FP) programs use individual behavior change models, applying linear theories of change and evaluation approaches. This presentation describes two interventions that use socio-ecological system models for design, implementation, evaluation and scale up. We will share formative research findings illustrating social system influences on FP, explain application of theories (eg, diffusion of innovation theory), measurement (eg, social network analysis), results and lessons learned from program scale up.”
- 15. “I Say!”: Quantitative and Qualitative Assessments of an Entertainment-Education Couple Communication Game Show in Tanzania: Abstract
by Jennifer Orkis, Vida Makamba, Pat Olvera, Deo Ng’wanansabi, Michelle Kaufman, Abu Msemo, Asia Mohamed, and May Bukuku
“Couple communication has been shown to positively influence health behaviors, including uptake of family planning, HIV counseling and testing, and condom use….In order to increase couple communication around family planning, maternal and child health, and HIV prevention, the Tanzania Capacity and Communication Project (TCCP) developed Aiisseee! (I Say!), an integrated, multi-media, entertainment-education platform designed to approach serious issues in a humorous way.”
- 16. Outcome Evaluation of the Safe Love Campaign in Zambia Using Propensity Score Matching: Positive Effects on Condom Use and HIV Testing: Abstract
by Answell Chipukuma, Christina Wakefield, Ana Claudia Franca-Koh, Samantha Herrera, John Manda, Kevin Chilemu, and Elizabeth Maliwa
Implemented in Zambia by the USAID- and PEPFAR-funded Communications Support for Health (CSH) project, Safe Love was based on formative research that revealed low self-efficacy for women in negotiating condom use and a low perception of the risk and realities of multiple concurrent partnerships (MCPs) – in part due to issues of trust and fear of partner reprisal that facilitate implicit acceptance of MCPs. In order to address these complexities, Safe Love included a strategic mix of channels, including mass media, social media, and interpersonal communication. In 2014, an outcome evaluation was conducted. The campaign positively affected 4 different condom-use behaviours among men and women, but only in urban areas.
|RADIO DRAMA FOR A HEALTHY CLIMATE
- 17. Punta Fuego: Entertainment-Education Radio Drama Promotes Sustainable Fisheries in Belize: Abstract
by Sean Southey and Ralna Lewis
“The first season of Punta Fuego – a serial radio drama, call-in show broadcast and mobilization campaign in Belize – took important steps to promote responsible fishing practices, and to increase respect for marine protected areas and replenishment zones. The script of the drama followed a version of the traditional Entertainment-Education method, innovatively applied to the environmental subject matter. The community-driven, participatory approach contributed to its large listenership within the fisher community (about 50 percent of survey subjects) and the significant positive change in its audience members. Fishers were involved in the formative research and program development processes and connected with the drama based on a feeling that it truly represented them.”
- 18. When the Drum Beats: Radio Drama as a Vehicle for Behaviour Change in Climate Change Adaptation amongst Rural Small Holder Farmers: Abstract
by Data Phido, Helen Hambly Odame, and Jite Phido
“Data analysis from respondents, ages ranging from 16-60 years, revealed that the radio drama [in Northern Nigeria] was able to positively influence the adoption of evidence-based climate change adaptation strategies, particularly when drama was supplemented by support groups such as listeners’ clubs.”
|This issue of The Drum Beat was written by Kier Olsen DeVries.
|The Drum Beat is the email and web network of The Communication Initiative Partnership.
Full list of the CI Partners:
ANDI, BBC Media Action, Bernard van Leer Foundation, Breakthrough, Citurna TV, Fundación Imaginario, Fundación Nuevo Periodismo Iberoamericano (FNPI), Heartlines,Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Center for Communication Programs, Maternal and Child Survival Program (MCSP), MISA, Open Society Foundations,Oxfam Novib, PAHO, The Panos Institute, Puntos de Encuentro, SAfAIDS, Sesame Workshop, Soul City, STEPS International, UNAIDS, UNICEF, Universidad de los Andes,USAID, World Health Organization (WHO), W.K. Kellogg Foundation
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