13,062 The Drum Beat 725, December 14 2016

The Drum BeatCommunication and Change News and Issues – The Drum Beat 725
December 14 2016
With a spirit of thanks, we share with you our final Drum Beat of 2016. We know how precious your time is and are grateful for every moment you spend reading the Drum Beat and contributing to it through the information you share and the connections you foster among people who care about using communication for development (C4D) to spark change. Whether or not C4D is threaded into your conversations over the holiday season, we wish you moments of reflection and celebration about whatever and whomever you care about. See you back here in January!

STRATEGIC THINKING: Video vs. Hate, Community Radio Codes, Participatory Climate
EVALUATIONS: Democracy in Action, Reviewing HIV Prevention Cascade Approaches, Life Skills Scale-Up
MATERIALS: Media Campaign Guide, C4D and Counter-Trafficking, Social Media in Emergencies
From The Communication Initiative Network – where communication and media are central to social and economic development.
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  • 1. Capturing Hate
    by Karen Stevenson and Kylar Broadus
    Capturing Hate is a project from the WITNESS Media Lab that collected and analysed eyewitness videos of transphobic violence (physical assault) in order to tell a more complete story of the climate of hate faced by the lesbian, gay, transgender, bisexual, and queer (LGBTQ) community in the United States (US). The data, and the stories and voices which contextualise this data, aim to equip advocacy groups and the media with the tools to effectively and ethically use eyewitness videos to document and report on violence affecting the LGBTQ community. [Oct 2016]
  • 2. Our Media, Our Principles: Building Codes of Practice for Community Radio in India
    by Kanchan K. Malik
    This paper looks at some of these principles that participants in the community radio (CR) sector in India can consider as they hope to strengthen civil society, journalism practices, and democracy in India – especially by encouraging marginalised voices and novel perspectives to be articulated and heard in both information-based and cultural productions. “The codes of practice profiled and recommended in this paper seek to identify self-defined acceptable norms for CR practitioners, a framework for professional conduct and responsibility with the purpose of upholding the sacrosanct ideals that characterize this sector.” [Aug 2015]
  • 3. Participation and Planning for Climate Change – Lessons From An Experimental Project in Maputo, Mozambique
    by Vanesa Castán Broto, Emily Boyd, Jonathan Ensor, Carlos Seventine, Domingos Augusto Macucule, and Charlotte Allen
    This Learning Paper explores the participatory approach used in ‘Public, Private, People Partnerships for Climate Compatible Development’ (4PCCD), an experimental project in Maputo, Mozambique. The project developed a participatory planning method called Participatory Action Plan Development (PAPD) to assist communities to identify climate-related development problems and solutions in a community in Maputo, as well as create partnerships and structures that address these concerns in an effective and sustainable way. [Aug 2015]
  • 4. Culturally Antagonistic Memes and the Zika Virus: An Experimental Test
    by Dan M. Kahan, Kathleen Hall Jamieson, Asheley R. Landrum, and Kenneth Winneg
    An excerpt from the paper: “In the course of exploring a more general theory, we presented evidence that the public’s comprehension of the best available evidence on a particular public health threat – the spread of the Zika virus – is at risk of being compromised by a distinctive science communication pathology. The infectious agent of this pathology consists in culturally antagonistic memes fabricated and propagated by advocates seeking to cash in on the public fear of Zika by bundling it with rhetoric calculated to excite contempt for those who oppose them on culturally charged issues like illegal immigration and climate change. When exposed to communications incorporating such rhetoric, culturally diverse study subjects formed polarizing affective reactions that in turn degraded their capacity to make sense of valid public health information.” [Jul 2016]
  • 5. Media Framing of Political Conflict
    by Nebojša Vladisavljevic
    This paper from the Media Conflict and DEMocratisation (MeCoDEM) project provides a critical overview of the literature on media and conflict by focusing on the ways in which contemporary news media frame different types of political conflict: inter-state and civil wars, extreme violence, institutionalised conflicts, and social movements in western democracies, as well as conflicts in non-democratic regimes and in democratisation. It aims to draw parallels between media reporting on these political conflicts and to suggest arguments and hypotheses for the empirical study of media framing of democratisation conflicts – such as those over citizenship, elections, transitional justice and distribution of power – in transitions from authoritarian rule and in new democracies. [May 2015]
ENQUIRY: Your priorities, opportunities and challenges!
What kinds of challenges and opportunities infuse your communication and media development, social and behavioural change work? This survey is a chance for you to let us know! In 2017, we will report back on results and trends so you can gain insights from your peers in the network.Click here to lend your voice.

POLL: What keeps you up at night with worry about ! your work?
Vote and comment here and then see what your peers are experiencing also!


  • 6. Participatory Approaches Involving Community and Healthcare Providers in Family Planning/Contraceptive Information and Service Provision: A Scoping Review
    by Petrus S. Steyn, Joanna Paula Cordero, Peter Gichangi, Jennifer A. Smit, Theresa Nkole, James Kiarie, and Marleen Temmerman
    This scoping study examines the role of participation – the active involvement of affected populations in decision-making, implementation, management, and evaluation of policies, programmes, and services – in large-scale family planning/contraceptive (FP/C) programmes around the world. “A better understanding of the relationship between outcomes and participation involving community and HCP is needed to help ensure that individuals’ sexual and reproductive health and rights remain in the fore as efforts to address unmet need for FP/C accelerate.” [Jul 2016]
  • 7. Final Evaluation: Democracy and Development in Action through Media and Empowerment (DAME) 2012-2014
    by Welmoed E. Koekebakker
    This report presents the results of the final evaluation of the Democracy and Development in Action through Media and Empowerment (DAME) project, implemented by Search for Common Ground-Timor-Leste (SFCG-TL) in collaboration with various partners. In brief, the evaluation found that the project has been successful in contributing in mobilising media, youth, and civil society actors to promote the culture of peace and democratic values in Timorese society, especially among youth. Critical success factors included: focus on youth empowerment; learning approach; appreciative communication; “common ground approach” (emphasis on experiential learning); inclusiveness; high participation of girls; and good working relations with partners and government representatives. [Feb 2015]
  • 8. Interventions to Strengthen the HIV Prevention Cascade: A Systematic Review of Reviews
    by Shari Krishnaratne, Bernadette Hensen, Jillian Cordes, Joanne Enstone, and James R. Hargreaves
    This paper reviews the available evidence for HIV prevention as reflected in systematic reviews of HIV prevention interventions published from January 1995 to July 2015, mapping the evidence base in line with the HIV prevention cascade, describing characteristics of interventions relevant to each area of the cascade, assessing the type of evidence available on these interventions, and identifying gaps and areas for future research. “Future research for biomedical tools with demonstrated efficacy should focus on population-level effectiveness. Research on increasing supply of these tools should use more rigorous study designs to measure impact in specific populations…” [Jul 2016]
  • 9. Scaling up of Life Skills Based Education in Pakistan: A Case Study
    by Joar Svanemyr, Qadeer Baig, and Venkatraman Chandra-Mouli
    This paper examines the scale-up of a rights-based, life-skills-based education (LSBE) programme conducted from 2004 to 2013 in Pakistan that included training and education about sexual and reproductive health (SRH) issues. Due to the conservative operating environment in which the LSBE curriculum was first introduced, a multiplicity of media and advocacy activities led to the modification and adaptation of the curriculum, with topics included or disregarded according to the needs of the intended group and feedback from the community, involving parents, religious leaders, community leaders, teachers, school administrators, and members of district education departments, amongst others. [Mar 2015]
  • 10. Citizen Voice in Afghanistan: Evaluation of National Solidarity Programme III
    by Kinga Komorowska
    Presented as part of Oxfam’s Effectiveness Review Series 2014/15, this report documents the findings of a qualitative impact evaluation that used process tracing to assess the effectiveness of the National Solidarity Programme III (NSP III) in Afghanistan. Launched in 2003 by the Ministry of Rural Rehabilitation and Development (MRRD), NSP was a large effort to “build, strengthen and maintain community development councils (CDCs) as effective institutions for local governance and socio-economic development”. One finding: The NSP has formally involved women in decision making bodies, empowering them politically. Nevertheless, the formal power does not always result in real power. [Sep 2016]

The World Health Organization (WHO) is in the process of developing a Emergency Risk Communication Guideline to build capacity in emergency risk communication at the national and international levels. They are currently compiling grey literature for the Guideline.

Please share useful documents (also unpublished) in order to make sure that all aspects are covered – WHO is focusing on lessons learned and evaluations on Ebola, Yellow Fever, Zika, Cholera, and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) but welcomes other examples.

The draft Guideline will be consulted through external peer review and with all WHO guideline-related groups and then submitted for Guideline Review Committee’s approval in 2017. Click here to learn more about the process.

Please send your material(s) by December 23 2016 to Mara Frigo at frigom@who.int. The subject line should be: Emergency Risk Communication Guideline – grey literature material


  • 11. Safety Guide for Journalists
    A Handbook for Reporters in High-Risk Environments
    From Reporters sans Frontières (FSF)/Reporters without Borders and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), this guide offers “essential information and practical advice” for journalists to assist them before, during, and after assignments in dangerous areas. [Feb 2016]
  • 12. The Saturation+ Handbook: How to Design and Run Mass Media Campaigns
    This tool elaborates the Saturation+ approach, which is designed for use by organisations that are delivering mass media behaviour change campaigns. “Intensity is key to any commercial advertising strategy, and yet it has been an underrated element of public health campaigning. Evidence suggests that achieving high exposure to messages is correlated with impact on behaviors…” While Development Media International (DMI)’s mass media campaigns focus on child survival, the principles described here are meant to be applicable to campaigns addressing other subjects. [Nov 2015]
  • 13. A Step-by-Step Guide to Applying Communication for Development (C4D) to Counter-Trafficking Activities
    Guided by other communication for development (C4D) tools in existence, IOM X – the International Organization for Migration (IOM)’s campaign to encourage safe migration and public action to stop exploitation and human trafficking – created its own toolkit to help readers understand C4D and behaviour change communication (BCC), as well as develop a C4D strategy for counter-trafficking initiatives. Case studies are included throughout – for example, one describing MTV EXIT’s Battambang Roadshow Concert, which took place on the National Anti-Trafficking Day in Cambodia and featured an educational drama performance by youth ambassadors alongside the screening of educational video content. [Jun 2016]
  • 14. TechNet Resource Library (TRL)
    From TechNet-21, this an online repository of journal articles, documents, tools, videos, websites, and other immunisation resources. For example, a series of short videos describes the impact of different information systems projects on the performance of national immunisation programmes. Members can add their own resources to the TRL, as well as comment on and discuss resources.
  • 15. Social Networking, Social Media: An Annotated Bibliography
    by Andrew Skuse and Tait Brimacombe
    This annotated bibliography is a collection of literature related to social networking, social media, and emergency situations (political emergencies, conflict situations, conflict-reduction and peacekeeping processes, and disaster responses and associated humanitarian assistance). It compiles both peer-reviewed literature and a range of opinion and technical resources drawn from agencies that have a humanitarian mandate. [2013]
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This issue of The Drum Beat was written by Kier Olsen DeVries.
The Drum Beat is the email and web network of The Communication Initiative Partnership.

Full list of the CI Partners:
ANDI, BBC Media Action, Bernard van Leer Foundation, Breakthrough, Citurna TV, Fundación Imaginario, Fundación Nuevo Periodismo Iberoamericano (FNPI), Heartlines,Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Center for Communication Programs, Maternal and Child Survival Program (MCSP), MISA, Open Society Foundations, Oxfam Novib, PAHO, The Panos Institute, Puntos de Encuentro, SAfAIDS, Sesame Workshop, Soul City, STEPS International, UNAIDS, UNICEF, Universidad de los Andes, USAID,World Health Organization (WHO), W.K. Kellogg Foundation

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